Learn Control Systems with Solved Examples and Exercises by A. K. Jairath - PDF Available
The growth medium must be supplied with nutrients not produced by muscle cells. For example, vitamin B12 is produced exclusively by certain gut-colonizing bacteria and found exclusively in regular meat. To be present in an in vitro meat product, vitamin B12 created commercially would need to be supplied. Iron is plentiful in regular meat in the heme form, which is present in myoglobin and hemoglobin.117 Ferric ions associated with transferrin (a blood-plasma protein) will probably need to be added to the culture medium to provide iron in an accessible form to the muscle cell mitochondria to be incorporated into heme, resulting in the synthesis of myoglobin.118 However, transferrin levels will need to be controlled to avoid excessive amounts of free ferric or ferrous ions, promoting the formation of harmful reactive oxygen species.119 Myoglobin concentrations in the muscle cells are to be kept low until a significant population of myotubes is created, which might also assist in calculating the optimal growth time necessary before harvesting in vitro meat.120
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To simplify communications between two devices in a home office, for example. In turn, most systems, such as WI-FI, WIMAX, and cellular communication systems, are multiuser, i.e. They have a single hub and multiple remote objects, each of which requires a radio connection. In this case, two problems are solved: on the one hand, the base station sends a signal to multiple subscribers through the same antenna system (MIMO broadcast), while at the same time receiving the same signal from multiple subscribers (MIMO) through the same antennas.